Our premium Grade A honey is totally raw and absolutely delicious. Viscous, aromatic and a rich amber hue, this completely natural raw unfiltered, unprocessed, and unpasteurized honey is truly wonderful. Our premium honey is gently strained, the old fashioned way, never using any heat. All the nutrition and active bee enzymes are intact in our pure live honey. You'll find our honey from wild flowers, citrus, and other varietals has more flavor and taste than honey from other sources or from bees that are fed sugar products. Compassionately harvested, you'll see that happy bees make the most nutritious and flavorful honey. Never any chemicals used, this is better than organic. Healthy, pure and delicious, you haven't tasted honey until you've had it straight from hive; just as nature intended.
The processing of honey often removes many of the phytonutrients found in raw honey as it exists in the hive. Raw honey, for example, contains small amounts of the same resins found in propolis. Propolis, sometimes called “bee glue,” is actually a complex mixture of resins and other substances that honeybees use to seal the hive and make it safe from bacteria and other micro-organisms. Honeybees make propolis by combining plant resins with their own secretions.
The resins found in propolis only represent a small part of the phytonutrients found in propolis and honey. Other phytonutrients found both in honey and propolis have been shown to possess powerful antimutagenic properties. These substances include caffeic acid methyl caffeate, phenylethyl caffeate, and phenylethyl dimethylcaffeate. Researchers have discovered that these substances may reduce cellular mutations in the colon of animals by shutting down the activity of two enzymes, phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C and lipoxygenase. When raw honey is extensively processed and heated, the benefits of these phytonutrients are largely eliminated.
One major cause of allergies is airborne pollen from trees, flowers and grass growing. This is the same pollen that bees collects on their hind legs by going from flower to flower. In much the same manner as allergy shots build up resistance to an allergen, immunotherapy with honey can be beneficial in fighting allergies. By taking a small amount of local honey (which contains traces of pollen) over a period of time, a person can build up a resistance to the pollen. It has been also been found that drinking four tablespoons of honey mixed into a 16-ounce glass of water improved the antioxidant levels in a person's blood which helps bolster the immune system.
You just can't get this kind of quality from large commercial bee farms. Our 100% pure raw honey comes from a local beekeeper who is passionate about his work. His small number of hives are meticulously cared for. The bees collect nectar from a garden of organic fruit trees and wildflowers year round and predominantly orange, lemon and other fruit blossoms in the spring time. Our delicious honey is packed in a glass mason jar by the beekeeper to preserve optimum flavor, nutrition and freshness. Limited quantities available.
Some possible benefits of our 100% Pure Raw Honey may include:
● Antiseptic properties
● Reducing swelling
● Promoting better blood sugar control
● Healing wounds & burns
● Reducing scarring
● Odor reduction
● Helping to build immunity against allergies & hay fever
● Reducing coughs
● Antibacterial properties
● Possessing large amount of friendly bacteria (6 species of lactobacilli & 4 species of bifidobacteria)
Southern Florida, USA
There is enormous variation among honeys and our raw honey passes our strict quality assurance. The plants and flowers where bees forage for nectar will determine the significant difference in the taste, aroma, and color of the honey. The color may range from glass-clear to a dark mahogany and in consistency from watery to chunky to a crystallized solid. The taste may range from sweet with a hint of bitterness to sweet with a hint of spiciness depending on the flowers blooming each season. ZNaturalfoods.com offers pure raw honey in a glass jar.
1. Root, A.I. (1980). The ABC and XYZ of Bee Culture: An encyclopedia pertaining to scientific and practical culture of bees. Medina, OH: The A.I. Root Company.
2. Roubik, D. (Smithsonian Tropical Resaerch Institute) (1996). In A. Matheson et al. (eds.), The Conservation of Bees. New York: Academic Press.
3. Sanford, M. (1995, March). Infant Botulism and Honey. Fact Sheet ENY-128, Entomology and Nematology Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. http://hammock.ifas.ufl.edu/txt/fairs/895.
4. Sanford, M. (Extension Apiculturist, Dept. of Entomology and Nematology, Univ. of FL) and Hoopingarner, R. (Prof. Department of Entomology, Michigan State) (1992). The Hive and the honey bee. J. Graham (ed). Hamilton, IL: Dadant.
5. Satterfield, J.(1997). An Alternative to Conventional Beekeeping. http://www.gsu.edu/~biojdsx/main.htm
6. Schmidt, D. (President, American Beekeeping Federation, Inc.) (1992, July 30). Review of the U.S. Honey Program. Y4.AG 8/1:102-90.
7. Schmidt, J. & Buchmann, S. (Research Entomologists, Carl Hayden Bee Research Center). (1992). Other Products of the Hive. The Hive and the honey bee. J. Graham (ed). Hamilton, IL: Dadant.
8. Seeley, T. (Section of Neurobiology and Behavior at Cornell University) (1995). The Wisdom of the Hive: The Social Physiology of Honey Bee Colonies. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
9. Shimanuki, H. & Sheppard W. (USDA Agricultural Research Service) (1992). Beekeeping. In Y.H. Hui (ed.), Encyclopedia of Food Science and Technology. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
10. Shimanuki, H. et al. (Research Leader, Bee Research Laboratory, USDA) (1992). Diseases and Pests of Honey Bees. The Hive and the honey bee. J. Graham (ed). Hamilton, IL: Dadant.
11. Snodgrass, R. (Collaborator, Smithsonian Institution and USDA) (1956). Anatomy of the honey Bee. Ithaca, NY: Comstock Publishing Associates.
12. Spiegel, M., Walker, A. (1997). The Dreaded Comparison. Charlotte, VT: Williamson Publishing.
13. Stepaniak, J."The Name Game: Coming to Terms." http://www.vegsource.com/jo/essays/namegame.htm.
14. Style, S. (1992). Honey: From Hive to Honeypot. San Francisco: Chronicle Books.
15. Sue Bee Honey. (1997). Honey Facts. http://www.suebee.com/.
16.Sugden, E. (Tura-Lura Apiaries) (1996). In Andrew Matheson et al. (eds.), The Conservation of Bees. New York: Academic Press.
17. Tew, James E. (Extension Specialist in Apiculture, The Ohio State University at Wooster, Ohio) (1996). "Fall Feeding." Bee Culture. September 2. http://bee.airoot.com/beeculture/months/96sep/96sept2.htm.
18. Vivian, J. (1986). Keeping Bees. Charlotte, VT: Williamson Publishing.
19. Watanabe, M. (1994). Pollination worries rise as honey bees decline. Science, 265, 1170.
20. Winston, M. (1987). The Biology of the Honey Bee. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
21. Wollman, G. (Sec.-Tres. Mid-US Honey Producers Marketing Association) (1992, July 30). Review of the U.S. Honey Program. Y4.AG 8/1:102-90.
22. Shimanuki, H., Harman, A., & K. Flottum (eds.). 2005. ABC & XYZ of bee culture, 41st Edition, The A.I. Root Co. Medina, Ohio.
23. Delaplane, K.S. 2007. First lessons in beekeeping, Dadant & Sons, Hamilton, Illinois.
24. Delaplane, K.S., 2006, Honey bees & beekeeping: A year in the life of an apiary 3rd edition, The University of Georgia, Georgia Center for Continuing Education, Athens, Georgia.
25. Dadant & Sons, Inc., 1992, The hive and the honey bee, Hamilton, Illinois.
26. Morse, R.A. & T. Hooper (eds.), 1985, The illustrated encyclopedia of beekeeping, E. P. Dutton, Inc., New York, New York.
27. Seeley, T.D., 1985, Honeybee ecology, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.
28. Seeley, T.D., 1995. The wisdom of the hive, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
29. Winston, M.L., 1987, The biology of the honey bee, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
31. Al-Waili NS. Natural honey lowers plasma glucose, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and blood lipids in healthy, diabetic, and hyperlipidemic subjects: comparison with dextrose and sucrose. J Med Food. 2004 Spring;7(1):100-7. 2004. PMID:15117561.
32. Ensminger AH, Ensminger, ME, Kondale JE, Robson JRK. Foods & Nutriton Encyclopedia. Pegus Press, Clovis, California. 1983.
33. Ensminger AH, Esminger M. K. J. e. al. Food for Health: A Nutrition Encyclopedia. Clovis, California: Pegus Press; 1986. 1986. PMID:15210.
34. Fessenden R. Report to the Officers and Board of Directors of theCommittee for the Promotion of Honey and Health, January 21, 2008. http://www.prohoneyandhealth.com/UserFiles/Image/Symposium Report.pdf. 0.
35. Fortin, Francois, Editorial Director. The Visual Foods Encyclopedia. Macmillan, New York. 1996.
36. Gribel' NV, Pashinskii VG. [The antitumor properties of honey]. Vopr Onkol 1990;36(6):704-9. 1990. PMID:13980.
37. Gross H, Polagruto J, Zhu Q, Kim S, Schramm D, Keen C. Effect of honey consumption on plasma antioxidant status in human subjects. Paper presented at the 227th American Chemical Society Meeting, Anahein CA, March 28, 2004.
39. Keast-Butler J. Honey for necrotic malignant breast ulcers. Lancet 1980 Oct 11;2(8198):809. 1980. PMID:13990.
40. Paul IM, Beiler J, McMonagle A, Shaffer ML, et al. Effect of honey, dextromethorphan, and no treatment on nocturnal cough and sleep quality for coughing children and their parents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007 Dec;161(12):1140-6. 2007. PMID:18056558.
41. Perez RA, Iglesias MT, Pueyo E, Gonzalez M, de Lorenzo C. Amino acid composition and antioxidant capacity of Spanish honeys. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Jan 24;55(2):360-5. 2007. PMID:17227066.
42. Rao CV, Desai D, Kaul B, et al. Effect of caffeic acid esters on carcinogen-induced mutagenicity and human colon adenocarcinoma cell growth. Chem Biol Interact 1992 Nov 16;84(3):277-90. 1992. PMID:13970.
43. Rao CV, Desai D, Rivenson A, et al. Chemoprevention of colon carcinogenesis by phenylethyl-3-methylcaffeate. Cancer Res 1995 Jun 1;55(11):2310-5. 1995. PMID:13950.
44. Rao CV, Desai D, Simi B, et al. Inhibitory effect of caffeic acid esters on azoxymethane-induced biochemical changes and aberrant crypt foci formation in rat colon. Cancer Res 1993 Sep 15;53(18):4182-8. 1993. PMID:13960.
45. Tanzi MG, Gabay MP. Association between honey consumption and infant botulism. Pharmacotherapy. 2002 Nov;22(11):1479-83. 2002. PMID:12432974.
46. Wood, Rebecca. The Whole Foods Encyclopedia. New York, NY: Prentice-Hall Press; 1988. 1988. PMID:15220.
48. Abenavoli FM, Corelli R. Honey therapy. Ann.Plast.Surg. 2004;52(6):627.
49. Al Waili NS. Topical honey application vs. acyclovir for the treatment of recurrent herpes simplex lesions. Med.Sci.Monit. 2004;10(8):MT94-MT98.
50. Bose B. Honey or sugar in treatment of infected wounds? Lancet 4-24-1982;1(8278):963.
51. Hou YC, Ching H, Chao PD, et al. Effects of glucose, fructose and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde on the presystemic metabolism and absorption of glycyrrhizin in rabbits. J.Pharm.Pharmacol. 2005;57(2):247-251.
52. Kaufmann A, Kaenzig A. Contamination of honey by the herbicide asulam and its antibacterial active metabolite sulfanilamide. Food Addit.Contam 2004;21(6):564-571.
53. Keast-Butler J. Honey for necrotic malignant breast ulcers. Lancet 10-11-1980;2(8198):809.
54. Molan PC, Betts JA. Clinical usage of honey as a wound dressing: an update. J.Wound.Care 2004;13(9):353-356.
55. Postmes T, van den Bogaard AE, Hazen M. Honey for wounds, ulcers, and skin graft preservation. Lancet 3-20-1993;341(8847):756-757.
56. Schumacher HH. Use of medical honey in patients with chronic venous leg ulcers after split-skin grafting. J.Wound.Care 2004;13(10):451-452.
57. Staunton CJ, Halliday LC, Garcia KD. The use of honey as a topical dressing to treat a large, devitalized wound in a stumptail macaque (Macaca arctoides). Contemp.Top Lab Anim Sci. 2005;44(4):43-45.
58. Subrahmanyam M. A prospective randomised clinical and histological study of superficial burn wound healing with honey and silver sulfadiazine. Burns 1998;24(2):157-161.
59. Subrahmanyam M. Early tangential excision and skin grafting of moderate burns is superior to honey dressing: a prospective randomised trial. Burns 1999;25(8):729-731.
60. Subrahmanyam M. Honey dressing versus boiled potato peel in the treatment of burns: a prospective randomized study. Burns 1996;22(6):491-493.
61. Subrahmanyam M. Honey impregnated gauze versus polyurethane film (OpSite) in the treatment of burns--a prospective randomised study. Br.J.Plast.Surg. 1993;46(4):322-323.
62. Subrahmanyam M. Storage of skin grafts in honey. Lancet 1-2-1993;341(8836):63-64.
64. Adee, R. (President, American Honey Producers Association) (1992, July 30). Review of the U.S. Honey Program. Y4.AG 8/1:102-90.
65.Ambrose, J. (Prof. Entomology & Extension Apiculturist, NC State Univ.). (1992). Management for Honey Production. The Hive and the honey bee. J. Graham (ed). Hamilton, IL: Dadant.
66. Balderrama, N. et al. (biologists) (1987). Behavioral and Pharmacological Analysis of the Stinging Response in Africanized and Italian Bees. Neurobiology and Behavior of Honeybees. R. Menzel & A. Mercer (eds.). New York: Springer-Verlag.
67. Beekeeping: The Beekeeper's Home Page. Beehives. http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/Beekeeping/beehives.htm.
68. Beekeeping: The Beekeeper's Home Page. The Queen Bee Page. http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/Beekeeping/thequeen.htm.
69. Bonney, R. (1993). Beekeeping: A Practical Guide. Pownal, VT: Garden Way Publishing.
70. Bonney, R. (1990). Hive management: A Seasonal Guide for Beekeepers. Pownal, VT: Garden Way Publishing.
71. Brody, J. (1998). What to Serve for Dinner, When Dinner Is on Mars. The New York Times. May 19.
72. Buchmann, S. (USDA Carl Haydon Bee Research Center) (1996). Competition between honey bees and native bees in the Sonoran Desert and global bee conservation issues. Andrew Matheson et al. (eds.), The Conservation of Bees. New York: Academic Press.
73. Buchmann, S. (professor of entomology at the University of Arizona in Tucson) & Nabhan, G. (director of science at the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum) (1996). The pollination crisis: the plight of the honey bee and the decline of other pollinators imperils future harvests (adapted from The Forgotten Pollinators). The Sciences, 36 (4), 22-28.
74. Caldeira, J. Kenya Top-bar Beekeeping. John's Beekeeping Notebook. http://home.earthlink.net/~jcaldeira/beekeeping/kenya.htm
75. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1995, March 9). Botulism Fact Sheet. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/foodborn/botulism.htm.
76. Cobey, S. (Rothenbuhler Honey Bee Lab, Ohio State University) New World Carniolan Breeding Program. http://IRIS.biosci.ohio-state.edu:80/honeybee/breeding/NWC.html
77. Consumers in Europe Group (UK). (1997). Select Committee on the European Communities. Session 1996-7, 8th Report. Production and Marketing of Honey. London: The Stationary Office.
79. Crane, E. (1983). The Archaeology of Beekeeping. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
80. Douglass, F., "Baptists, Congregationalists, the Free Church, and Slavery: An Address Delivered in Belfast, Ireland, on December 23, 1845." Belfast News Letter , December 26, 1845 and Belfast Northern Whig , December 25, 1845. Blassingame, John ( et al , eds.). The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One--Speeches, Debates, and Interviews . New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Vol. I. http://www.yale.edu/glc/archive/1065.htm
81. Dunayer, J. (2001). Aniaml Equality: Language and Liberation. Derwood, MD: Ryce Publishing.
82. National Honey Board. "Carbohydrates and the Sweetness of Honey". Last accessed 1 June 2012.
83. Oregon State University. "What is the relative sweetness of different sugars and sugar substitutes?". Retrieved 1 June 2012.
84. Lansing Prescott, John P. Harley, Donald A. Klein (1999). Microbiology. Boston: WCB/McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-697-35439-3.
85. Shapiro, Roger L.; Hatheway,, Charles; Swerdflow,, David L. (1998). "Botulism in the United States: A Clinical and Epidemiologic Review". Annals of Internal Medicine 129 (3): 221–8. doi:10.1059/0003-4819-129-3-199808010-00011. PMID 9696731.
86. Vaughn M. Bryant, Jr. (2001). "Pollen Contents of Honey". CAP Newsletter 24 (1): 10–24.
87. Mercuri AM, Porrini C. (1991). "Melissopalynological analysis applied to air pollution studies in urban areas of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy)". Aerobiologia 7 (1): 38–48. doi:10.1007/BF02450016.
88. Tonelli D, Gattavecchia E, Ghini S, Porrini C, Celli G, Mercuri AM. (1990). "Honey bees and their products as indicators of environmental radioactive pollution". Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 141 (2): 427–436. doi:10.1007/BF02035809.
89. National Honey Board. "Honey and Bees." Last accessed 10 January 2010.
90. Val Whitmyre. "The Plight of the Honeybees." University of California. Retrieved 14 April 2007.
91. Standifer LN. "Honey Bee Nutrition And Supplemental Feeding". Excerpted from "Beekeeping in the United States." Retrieved 14 April 2007.
92. A. I. Root; E. R. Root (March 2005). The ABC and Xyz of Bee Culture. Kessinger Publishing. pp. 355–. ISBN 978-1-4179-2427-1. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
93. Piotr Tomasik Chemical and functional properties of food saccharides, CRC Press 2004 p. 74 ISBN 0-8493-1486-0
94. Kántor, Zoltán; Pitsi, Guido; Thoen, Jan (1999). "Glass Transition Temperature of Honey as a Function of Water Content As Determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 47 (6): 2327–2330. doi:10.1021/jf981070g. PMID 10794630.
95. Vidal Russell, E.; Israeloff, N. E. (2000). "Direct observation of molecular cooperativity near the glass transition". Nature 408 (6813): 695–698. doi:10.1038/35047037. PMID 11130066.
96. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; R. Krell (1996). Value-added products from beekeeping. Food & Agriculture Org. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-92-5-103819-2. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
97. Stefan Bogdanov Book of Honey, Chapter 4 Physical Properties of Honey
98. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; R. Krell (1996). Value-added products from beekeeping. Food & Agriculture Org. pp. 5–6. ISBN 978-92-5-103819-2. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
99. A. I. Root; E. R. Root (March 2005). The ABC and Xyz of Bee Culture. Kessinger Publishing. pp. 348–. ISBN 978-1-4179-2427-1. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
100. Hans-Dieter Belitz, Werner Grosch, Peter Schieberle Food chemistry Springer Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg 2004 p. 884 ISBN 3-540-69933-3
101. Zdzislaw E. Sikorski Chemical and functional properties of food components CRC Press 2007 p. 121 ISBN 0-8493-9675-1
102. A. I. Root; E. R. Root (March 2005). The ABC and Xyz of Bee Culture. Kessinger Publishing. p. 350. ISBN 978-1-4179-2427-1. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
103. Value-added products from beekeeping By Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, R. Krell – FAO 1996. Pages 40–43
104. pH and Acids in Honey. National Honey Board Food Technology/Product Research Program
105. Alistair L. Wilkins, Yinrong Lu (1995). "Extractives from New Zealand Honeys. 5. Aliphatic Dicarboxylic Acids in New Zealand Rewarewa (Knightea excelsa) Honey". J. Agric. Food Chem. 43 (12): 3021–3025. doi:10.1021/jf00060a006.
106. Eva Crane The Archaeology of Beekeeping, Cornell University Press (1983) ISBN 0-8014-1609-4
107. Isack, H. A.; Reyer, H.-U. (1989). "Honeyguides and honey gatherers: interspecific communication in a symbiotic relationship". Science 243 (4896): 1343–6. doi:10.1126/science.243.4896.1343. PMID 17808267.
108. Short, Lester, Jennifer Horne, and A. W. Diamond (2003). "Honeyguides". In Christopher Perrins (Ed.). Firefly Encyclopedia of Birds. Firefly Books. pp. 396–397. ISBN 1-55297-777-3.
109. Dean, W. R. J.; MacDonald, I. A. W. (1981). "A Review of African Birds Feeding in Association with Mammals". Ostrich 52 (3): 135. doi:10.1080/00306525.1981.9633599.
110. Kvavadze, Eliso; Gambashidze, Irina; Mindiashvili, Giorgi; Gogochuri, Giorgi (2006). "The first find in southern Georgia of fossil honey from the Bronze Age, based on palynological data". Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 16 (5): 399. doi:10.1007/s00334-006-0067-5.
111. Georgian ancient honey. cncworld.tv (2012-03-31). Retrieved on 10 July 2012.
112. The world’s first winemakers were the world’s first beekeepers. guildofscientifictroubadours.com (2012-04-02). Retrieved on 10 July 2012.
113. Larry Gonick The Cartoon History of the Universe Vol.2
114. Roman Cookery by Mark Grant (Serif, London, 2008)
115. Berel, Rabbi. (2005-09-24) Apples and Honey. Aish.com. Retrieved on 6 February 2011.
116. "Why is honey kosher?" Chabad.org. Retrieved 30 November 2010.
117. Sahih Bukhari vol. 7, book 71, number 584, 585, 588 and 603.
118. Yusuf 'Ali, 'Abdullah. An Nahl, Al-Quran Chapter 16 (The Bee) quoted from "The Holy Qur'an: Original Arabic Text with English Translation & Selected Commentaries". Saba Islamic Media. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
119. Definition of honey and honey products. (PDF) . Retrieved on 9 January 2012.
120. Questions Most Frequently Asked About Sugar. American Sugar Alliance.
121. USDA Nutrient Data Laboratory "Honey."[dead link] Last accessed 24 August 2007.
122. Martos I, Ferreres F, Tomás-Barberán F (2000). "Identification of flavonoid markers for the botanical origin of Eucalyptus honey". J Agric Food Chem 48 (5): 1498–502. doi:10.1021/jf991166q. PMID 10820049.
123. Gheldof N, Wang X, Engeseth N (2002). "Identification and quantification of antioxidant components of honeys from various floral sources". J Agric Food Chem 50 (21): 5870–7. doi:10.1021/jf0256135. PMID 12358452.
124. Beesource Beekeeping » Honey Composition and Properties. Beesource.com. Retrieved on 6 February 2011.
125. Gov.au/reports. None. Retrieved on 9 January 2012.
126. Rainer Krell, (1996). Value-Added Products from Beekeeping (Fao Agricultural Services Bulletin). Food & Agriculture Organization of the UN. ISBN 92-5-103819-8.
127. C3,C4: Mechanisms, and Cellular and Environmental Regulation, of Photosynthesis, G Edwards & D A Walker, University of California Press, 1983 "Sucrose synthesized by a C4 plant (e.g. sugar beet) can be distinguished from sucrose synthesized by a C3 plant (e.g. sugar-cane) due to differences in d values."
128. Carla Barry (February 1999). "The detection of C4 sugars in honey". Hivelights (Canadian Honey Council) 12 (1). Archived from the original on 17 June 2008.
129. Value-added products from beekeeping. Chapter 2. Fao.org. Retrieved on 14 April 2011.
130. "The Rheological & Mellisopalynological Properties of Honey" (PDF). Minerva Scientific. Retrieved 10 December 2012. "If however, rheological measurements are made on a given sample it can be deduced that the sample is predominantly Manuka (Graph 2) or Kanuka (Graph 3) or a mixture of the two plant species"
131. "Definition of Honey and Honey Products" (PDF). National Honey Issac Board. Retrieved 3 February 2011. "Blended Honey: A homogeneous mixture of two or more honeys differing in floral source, color, flavor, density or geographic origin."
132. "Honey Color and Flavor". National Honey Board. Retrieved 3 February 2011. "Wildflower honey is often used to describe honey from miscellaneous and undefined flower sources."
133. "Varieties of honey: Polyfloral honey". The Honey Book. Retrieved 10 November 2007. "Honey that is from wild or commercialized honeybees that is derived from many types of flowers is a resulting Polyfloral honey."
134. Mountain Wildflower Honey. Mieliditalia.it. Retrieved on 6 February 2011.
135. The Colours Of Honey. Mieliditalia.it. Retrieved on 6 February 2011.
136. Gounari, Sofia (2006). "Studies on the phenology of Marchalina hellenica (gen.) (Hemiptera: coccoidea, margarodidae) in relation to honeydew flow". Journal of apicultural research 45 (1): 8–12. doi:10.3896/IBRA.1.45.1.03.
137. Subramanian, R.; Hebbar, H. Umesh; Rastogi, N. K. (2007). "Processing of Honey: A Review". International Journal of Food Properties 10: 127. doi:10.1080/10942910600981708.
138. Definition of Honey and Honey Products. honey.com. Approved by the National Honey Board 15 June 1996; Updated 27 September 2003
140. "United States Standards for Grades of Extracted Honey". USDA / Agricultural Marketing Service. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
141. Ultrasonic Honey Processing. Hielscher.com. Retrieved on 6 February 2011.
142. Honey Processing. Beeworks.com. Retrieved on 6 February 2011.
143. "The History of the Origin and Development of Museums". Dr. M. A. Hagen. The American naturalist, Volume 10. 1876.
144. 1894. The Mummy: A Handbook of Egyptian Funerary Archaeology. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Reprinted New York: Dover Publications, 1989)
145. "United States Standards for Grades of Extracted Honey". USDA. Retrieved 11 May 2010.
146. NOTIFICATION, MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE (Department of Agriculture and Co-operation) New Delhi, 24 December 2008
147. Stefan Bogdanov Honey production. Bee Product Science (2008)
148. Matthew Allan BASIC HONEY PROCESSING, Beekeeping in a Nutshell Number 5
149. "Keeping Tabs on Honey". Chemical & Engineering News 86 (35): 43. 2008. doi:10.1021/cen-v086n035.p043.
150. "raw honey as medicine: the medicinal value of raw honey". Drgrotte.com. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
152. Knox, Angie (8 June 2004). "Harnessing honey's healing power". BBC News. Retrieved 2 June 2007.
153. Wahdan H (1998). "Causes of the antimicrobial activity of honey". Infection 26 (1): 26–31. doi:10.1007/BF02768748. PMID 9505176.
154. Honey as an Antimicrobial Agent. Waikato Honey Research Unit. 16 November 2006. Retrieved 2 June 2007.
155. Waikato Honey Research Unit – What's special about active manuka honey?[dead link]. Bio.waikato.ac.nz. Retrieved on 6 February 2011.
156. ScienceDaily. (2008). Honey Effective In Killing Bacteria That Cause Chronic Sinusitis.
157. Lusby, PE; Coombes, A, Wilkinson, JM (November 2002). "Honey: a potent agent for wound healing?". Journal of wound, ostomy, and continence nursing : official publication of The Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society / WOCN 29 (6): 295–300. doi:10.1067/mjw.2002.129073. PMID 12439453.
158. Honey as a topical antibacterial agent for treatment of infected wounds. Worldwidewounds.com (2002-02-15). Retrieved on 6 February 2011.
159. Al-Waili N, Salom K, Al-Ghamdi AA (2011 Apr 5). "Honey for wound healing, ulcers, and burns; data supporting its use in clinical practice". ScientificWorldJournal 11: 766–87. doi:10.1100/tsw.2011.78. PMID 21479349.
160. Jennifer Eddy "UW study tests topical honey as a treatment for diabetic ulcers", UW Health's Eau Claire Family Medicine Clinic, University of Wisconsin–Madison (2 May 2007)
161. "How honey kills bacteria". Fasebj.org. 12 March 2010. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
162. Bilsel, Y.; D. Bugra, S. Yamaner, T. Bulut, U. Cevikbas, and U. Turkoglu (16 January 2002). "Could Honey Have a Place in Colitis Therapy". Digestive Surgery 29 (4): 306–312. doi:10.1159/000064580.
163. Molan, Peter C. (1992). "Honey for the treatment of infections". The New Zealand Beekeeper (Waikato Honey Research Unit) 216: 19–20. Archived from the original on 28 April 2007. Retrieved 3 June 2007.
164. The Guardian Society 04/12/2007 Randerson, James (4 December 2007). "Honey 'beats cough medicine'". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 4 May 2010.
165. Studies of honey treatment effects on allergies. American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology. 26 May 2006. Retrieved 20 September 2010.
166. More, MD, Daniel (5 March 2010). Does eating local honey help treat symptoms of allergies? (re: Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003 Oct;3(5):395–9.). About.com Allergies. Retrieved 20 September 2010.
167. Ishikawa, Y; Tokura, Tomoko; Nakano, Nobuhiro; Hara, Mutsuko; Niyonsaba, François; Ushio, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Yuji; Tadokoro, Tadahiro et al. (2008). "Inhibitory Effect of Honeybee-Collected Pollen on Mast Cell Degranulation In Vivo and In Vitro". Journal of Medicinal Food 11 (1): 14–20. doi:10.1089/jmf.2006.163. PMID 18361733.
168. Jull, AB; Rodgers, A, Walker, N (October 2008 8). "Honey as a topical treatment for wounds.". Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (4): CD005083. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005083.pub2. PMID 18843679.
169. Snowdon JA, Cliver DO (Aug 1996). "Microorganism in honey". Int J Food Microbiol 31 (1–3): 1–26. doi:10.1016/0168-1605(96)00970-1. PMID 8880294.
170. The National Honey Board|Frequently Asked Questions. Honey.com. Retrieved on 6 February 2011.
171. Postmes, T.; Bogaard, A. E.; Hazen, M. (1995). "The sterilization of honey with cobalt 60 gamma radiation: a study of honey spiked with spores ofClostridium botulinum andBacillus subtilis". Experientia 51 (9–10): 986–9. doi:10.1007/BF01921753. PMID 7556583.
172. Molan PC, Allen KL (November 1996). "The effect of gamma-irradiation on the antibacterial activity of honey". The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology 48 (11): 1206–9. doi:10.1111/j.2042-7158.1996.tb03922.x. PMID 8961174.
173. Report on Minimally Processed Infant Weaning Foods and the Risk of Infant Botulism. (PDF). Advisory Committee on the Microbiological Safety of Food (July 2006). food.gov.uk. Retrieved on 9 January 2012.
174. Botulism in the United States, 1899–1996, Handbook for Epidemiologists, Clinicians, and Laboratory Workers, Atlanta, GA. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1998)
175. Infant Botulism and Honey. Edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Retrieved on 9 January 2012.
176. FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Foodborne Pathogenic Microorganisms and Natural Toxins Handbook."Grayanotoxin"
177. National Beekeepers Association, New Zealand – Toxic Honey "Toxic Honey"
178. FAO statistics.
179. Where Honey Comes From
180. Lavin Tierra, Mariely (February 2008). "Yucatán y su miel". México Desconocido 372: 78–83.
181. Miel de Corse mele di Corsica, la gamme variétale AOC AOP. Miel-corse.eu. Retrieved on 6 February 2011.
183. Foreign Agricultural Service. (1997). Sugar: World Markets and Trade. November. http://www.fas.usda.gov/htp2/sugar/1997/97-11/sugar.htm.
184. Francione, G. (2002). Act'ionline Friends of Animals. Summer. http://www.friendsofanimals.org/action/summer2002/summer2002garyfrancione.htm.
185. Fottum, K. (1997). U.S. Honey Imports. Bee Culture. May. http://www.airoot.com/beedevelop/imports.htm.
186. Glenn Apiaries. Cordovan: Bees of a different color. Glenn Apiaries Brochure. http://members.aol.com/queenb95/cordovan.html.
187. Gould, J. & Gould, C. (1988). The Honey Bee . New York: Scientific American Library.
188. Gustafsson, Per-Olof (2001). P-O's Beekeeping Homepage. http://www.algonet.se/~beeman.
189. Hoff, F. (Commercial Economics Division, Economic Research Service, USDA) & Schertz Willett L. (Department of Agricultural Economics, Cornell University) (1994, May). The U.S. Beekeeping Industry. Agricultural Economic Report No. 680, A 1.107: 680.
190. Hoff, F. (Commercial Economics Division, Economic Research Service,USDA) (1995, April) Honey: Background for 1995 Farm Legislation. Agricultural Economic Report No. 708. A 1.107: 708.
192. Mundo MA, Padilla-Zakour OI, Worobo RW. Growth inhibition of foodborne pathogens and food spoilage organisms by select raw honeys.
193. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 2004
195. Wahdan HAL. Causes of the antimicrobial activity of honey. Infection. 1998;26:30-35.
197. Honey A Source of Antioxidants Journal of Apicultural Research, 1998;37:221-225
199. USDA. 1962. White, J.W. Jr. et al. Composition of American Honeys. Tech. Bull. 1261. Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Washington, DC.
201. White, J.W. Jr. 1980. Detection of Honey Adulteration by Carbohydrate Analysis. JAOAC. 63(1):11-18.
203. Sweeteners & Desserts. 2005. American Diabetes Association. http://www.diabetes.org/nutrition-and-recipes/nutrition/sweeteners.jsp
205. White, J.W. Jr. 1978. Honey. Advances in Food Research 24:288.
207. Low, N.H. et al. 1986. A New Enzyme, ß-glucosidase, in Honey. Journal of Apicultural Research 25(3):178.
208. Gheldof N and Engeseth NJ. Antioxidant capacity of honeys from various fl oral sources based on the determination of oxygen radical absorbance capacity
209. and inhibition of in vitro lipoprotein oxidation in human serum samples. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:3050-3055.
210. Gheldof N, Wang, XH, Engeseth NJ. Identifi cation and quantifi cation of antioxidant components of honeys from various fl oral sources. J Agric Food Chem.
212. Foster-Powell K, Holt SHA, Brand-Miller JC. International table glycemic index and glycemic load: 2002. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76:5-56.
213. Ischayek J, Kern M. Glycemic Indexes of US Honeys Varying in Glucose and Fructose Content. (abstr). Accepted for presentation at the 2005 Experimental
214. Biology meeting
215. Tannock J. Probiotics: A Critical Review. Norfolk, England. Horizon Scientifi c Press. 1999, pp 1-3.
216. Kato M, Shibata A, Yasui T, Nagamasu H. (1999). Impact of introduced honeybees, Apis mellifera, upon native bee communities in the Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands. Researches on Population Ecology. 41, 217-228.
217. LaBell, Fran. "Ancient Agave Yields Modern Sweetener." Prepared Foods. http://www.preparedfoods.com/archives/1999/9906/9906western.htm.
218. Laidlaw, H. (1977). Instrumental Insemination of Honey Bee Queens: Pictorial Instructional Manual. Dadant & Sons.
219. Lomas, G. A Quantum Breakthrough in Apiculture: Fixed Frame Modular Hive Technology. http://www.smoss.org.za/honeyh/
220. Jibrin, J. (1997). (M.S., R.D.) The Facts on Sugar. http://www.naturalland.com/nv/nn/sweet.htm
222. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (UK). (1997). Select Committee on the European Communities. Session 1996-7, 8th Report. Production and Marketing of Honey. London: The Stationary Office.
223. Mussen, E. (Extension Apiculturist, UC Davis) (1998). Queen Quality. Bee Breifs. http://entomology.ucdavis.edu/faculty/mussen/beebriefs/Quality.pdf
224. National Farmers' Union (UK). (1997). Select Committee on the European Communities. Session 1996-7, 8th Report. Production and Marketing of Honey. London: The Stationary Office.
225. National Honey Board (US). Enzymes in Honey. http://www.nhb.org/foodtech/enzymes.html.
226. National Honey Board (US). Honey History Facts. http://www.honey.com/kids/history.html.
227. National Honey Board (US). Honey Information. http://www.honey.com/info/geninfo.html.
228. National Honey Board (US). Honey Nutrition Facts. http://www.nhb.org/foodtech/ntrtn.html.
229. National Honey Board (US). Honey Trivia. http://www.honey.com/kids/triviaans.html#10a.
230. National Honey Board (US). Nutritional Information http://nhb.org/foodserv/geninfo.html
231. National Honey Board (US). The Official National Honey Board Handbook. Newly Revised Edition. http://www.nhb.org/download/NHBHandbook.pdf.
232. National Honey Board (US). pH and Acids in Honey. http://www.nhb.org/foodtech/phacids.html#amino.
233. National Honey Board (US). 1999 Treasurer’s Report and Recent National Honey Board Highlights. http://www.nhb.org/download/treas99.pdf
234. Nickens, E. (1996). Beyond the birds and the bees (mites destroying American honey bee populations and upsetting the food web). Audubon, 98 (5), 22-4.
235. Núñez, J. A., Almeida L., Balderrama N. and Giurfa M. (1997). Alarm Pheromone Induces Stress Analgesia via an Opioid System in the Honeybee. Physiology & Behaviour 63 (1), 75-80.
236. O'Toole, C. (Hope Entomological Collections, University Museum, Oxford) (1993). Diversity of Native Bees and Agroecosystems. Hymenoptera and Biodiversity. J. LaSalle & I.D. Gauld (eds). C.A.B International.
237. Ohio Queen Breeders. "Breeder Queens." http://www.ohioqueenbreeders.com/breeder_queens.htm Visited 15 July 2002.
238. Ohio Queen Breeders. "Selected Traits." http://www.ohioqueenbreeders.com/selected_traits.htm Visited 15 July 2002.
239. Ohio Queen Breeders. "SMR - Suppression of Mite Reproduction." http://www.ohioqueenbreeders.com/SMR.htm Visited 15 July 2002.
240. Raloff, J. (1998). Russian Queens Bee-little Mites' Impact. Science News. 154, 84. http://www.sciencenews.org/sn_arc98/8_8_98/fob1.htm
241. Michael S. Engel (1999). "The taxonomy of recent and fossil honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Apis)". Journal of Hymenoptera Research 8: 165–196.
242. Deborah R. Smith, Lynn Villafuerte, Gard Otisc & Michael R. Palmer (2000). "Biogeography of Apis cerana F. and A. nigrocincta Smith: insights from mtDNA studies" (PDF). Apidologie 31 (2): 265–279. doi:10.1051/apido:2000121.
243. Michael S. Engel, I. A. Hinojosa-Diaz & A. P. Rasnitsyn (2009). "A honey bee from the Miocene of Nevada and the biogeography of Apis (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Apini)". Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 60 (3): 23–38.
244. Maria C. Arias & Walter S. Sheppard (2005). "Phylogenetic relationships of honey bees (Hymenoptera:Apinae:Apini) inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 37 (1): 25–35. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.02.017. PMID 16182149.
245. Maria C. Arias & Walter S. Sheppard (2005). "Corrigendum to "Phylogenetic relationships of honey bees (Hymenoptera:Apinae:Apini) inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data"". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 315. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.02.002.
246. Nathan Lo, Rosalyn S. Gloag, Denis L. Anderson & Benjamin P. Oldroyd (2009). "A molecular phylogeny of the genus Apis suggests that the Giant Honey Bee of the Philippines, A. breviligula Maa, and the Plains Honey Bee of southern India, A. indica Fabricius, are valid species". Systematic Entomology 35 (2): 226–233. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.2009.00504.x.
247. Charles F. Calkins, "Beekeeping in Yucatán: A Study in Historical-Cultural Zoogeography (PhD diss., University of Nebraska, 1974), as quoted in Crane, World History of Beekeeping, p. 292. Calkins cites the original translated source as Hernán Cortés, Letters of Cortés: The Five Letters of Relation from Fernando Cortes to the Emperor Charles V, trans. and ed. Francis A. MacNutt (New York: Putnam, 1908), 1:145.
248. Horn, Bees in America, p. 80–81. http://maxwellinstitute.byu.edu/publications/review/?vol=20&num=1&id=694#_ednref30
249. James L. Gould & Carol Grant Gould (1995). The Honey Bee. Scientific American Library. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-7167-6010-8.
251. "A Quart of Honey Means 48,000 miles of flight" Popular Mechanics, December 1911, p. 889.
252. C. H. Thawley. "Heat tolerance as a weapon". Davidson College. Retrieved June 1, 2010.
253. Michio Sugahara & Fumio Sakamoto (2009). "Heat and carbon dioxide generated by honeybees jointly act to kill hornets". Naturwissenschaften 96 (9): 1133–6. doi:10.1007/s00114-009-0575-0. PMID 19551367.
254. Victora Gill (July 3, 2009). "Honeybee mobs overpower hornets". BBC News. Retrieved July 5, 2009.
256. "O Asvins, lords of brightness, anoint me with the honey of the bee, that I may speak forceful speech among men! Atharva Veda 91-258, quoted in Maguelonne Toussaint-Samat (Anthea Bell, tr.) The History of Food, 2nd ed. 2009:14.
257. Virgil, Georgics, book IV.
258. Bee Wilson (2004). The Hive: The Story Of The Honeybee. London: John Murray. p. 14. ISBN 0-7195-6598-7.
259. "The symbols of empire". Napoleon.org. Retrieved June 1, 2010.
260. Robinson W., Nowogrodzski, R, & Morse, R. (1989). The Value of Honey Bees as Pollinators of U.S. Crops, Part II. American Bee Journal, 129, 477-487.